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October 24, 2017


bit One HD Virtuoso FIR

bit One HD Virtuoso FIR mode


Audio quality increased thanks to the lack of phase rotations on the crossover cut-off

IIR digital filters faithfully simulate analog filters (active or passive), approximating phase and frequency behavior. Like their analog equivalents, they are affected by unavoidable phase rotations at the cut-off frequency, which are different based on the type of curve used (Butterworth, Linkwitz, Bessel), however still perceived when listening.
In practice, for instance, a fourth-order low-pass IIR filter (24 dB / Oct) at 200 Hz cut-off, plus a high-pass symmetric filter, results in a phase rotation ranging from 0 to -360 degrees along the whole audio spectrum. This phase alteration affects the perception of the sound image, which highlights inaccuracies in terms of coherence and stability.



Electric frequency response simulation (module and phase) of low-pass Linkwitz-Riley fourth order crossover (24 dB/Oct) summed with a symmetrical high-pass featuring a 200 Hz cut-off frequency. IIR filters (in black) and FIR filters (in blue).


Think of a 3-way system where the door-mounted 18 cm woofer is 400 Hz crossed with the middle-range, installed on the a-pillar next to a tweeter, itself crossed with the middle-range at 5.000 Hz, using crossovers with IIR filters. The system phase alteration reduces the focus of the instruments on the virtual stage. For this reason, a number of audio enthusiasts prefer to adopt 2-way systems with a woofer and tweeter crossing at 2.500 Hz with a slope of 6 dB / Oct, so as to limit phase rotations as much as possible. This solution, however, presents a number of significant disadvantages, mainly due to increased distortion and lower tweeter power. With a slope of only 6 dB / Oct., the music signal around the cut-off frequency is simultaneously generated by tweeters and woofers to a considerable extent. Since a tweeter and a woofer have very different electro-acoustic parameters, the sum of the two emissions does not produce clear output signals, which results in less clarity in the reproduction of musical transients.

Exceeding the limits imposed by phase rotations of an IIR equalizer

Similarly to crossover filters, graphic and parametric equalizers based on IIR filters alter the signal phase behavior with significant effects on audio quality. A heavily equalized signal is characterized by an unclear stereo image and lack of transients definition. Audiophiles often classify this feeling as a veil that blurs the musical message and deprives it of the necessary emotion.


Electric frequency response simulation (module and phase), of the two poles of the parametric equalizer featuring IIR filters (in black) and FIR filters (in blue).


Improved acoustic quality with crossover filters and FIR equalizers



The use of FIR filters guarantees an important result: the phase behaviour is linear, free from rotations or indecisions. This also makes the use of filters with a very high slope (up to 48 dB / Oct) possible, without altering the phase response. Such a high slope for the filter enables the midrange and tweeters mounted on the a-pillar to work at lower frequencies without any issues with power handling, thus raising the emission front. Therefore thanks to the FIR filters the advantages of three or multiple-way systems are completely exploited taking in-car listening experience to a different level. When listening, a system that uses FIR filters provides great clarity in transients reproduction, such as the acoustic piano hammer strikes or the drums. The stereophonic image is deeper and definite. Instruments in the virtual stage are more focused and seem to have more space between them. Even the intervention of any equalizer over the frequency response, when available in FIR technology, does not modify the audio signal phase, allowing more precise and detailed corrections without conditioning the audio quality.

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